Carpets for Contract will be exhibiting at the Fair 'Middle East Covering 2015', Dubai World Trade Centre, 18.05. - 21.05. 2015. We are exited to introduce our innovative services, along with new innovative product lines, and interactive terminals. Further Updates shortly.
Carpets for Contract
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Here is a post with images on our Google Plus Page, a great demonstration what our Manufacturing Partners Halbmond is capable of, with its state of the art machines. We can do pretty much anything in Design and Ideas! https://plus.google.com/101208280671887366547/posts/gzmvtbJeRXG
Carpets for Contract
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
ANKER Carpet; Made in Germany has launched a new product that meets the modern multicoloured demands. Fantastic colours and combinations with its cut and loop surface. Available as rolls as well as carpet tiles. Fulfils highest contract environmental standards. Contact us for more info or samples.
Carpets for Contract
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
The weaving process
A brief history. It is believed that the Babylonians wove fabrics on primitive hand looms as early as 3000 BCE. The oldest three-dimensional method of making carpets, one that is still used today, is knotting. It is no longer possible to reconstruct exactly when people first began making carpets in the orient. In the 8th century CE, the Moors brought the first oriental carpets to Europe with their expansion into Spain. Knotted oriental carpets were introduced to Germany around the time of the Crusades. As oriental carpets became ever more popular in Europe, King Henry IV of France authorized the first carpet factory in the 17th century.
The first factory-made hand-woven carpets were produced in France, Belgium and England in the 18th century. The most famous carpet types of this era are Tournay, Brussels and Wilton carpets, named after the cities where they were developed. Once the English clergyman Dr. Edmund Cartwright invented the mechanical loom in 1786 (but not yet for carpets) and the Frenchman Joseph-Marie Jacquard invented the machine that bears his name in 1805, it was only a matter of time – until 1822, to be exact – until mechanical looms for heavy fabrics were invented, by the Englishman R. Roberts.
The first mechanical carpet loom was presented to the world at the 1851 London Exhibition by E. Bigelow of Boston. In Germany, a carpet industry developed around the middle of the 19th century in response to the rising demand. (ABB.) Power pile wire loom.
Pile wire weaving process
In weaving, two thread systems are crossed at right angles. The lengthwise threads are called the “warp”, and the crosswise threads are called the “weft”. When weaving pile carpets, the pile height is recognized as an additional third dimension.
Thus, three warps are required:
As the threads that make up the pile can only be raised a lowered as one by the shaft, the pile wire weaving process can only produce single-colour material or material that is striped along the direction of the warp. After passing through the heald grommets, the threads of the three warps are passed through a weaving reed (harness). The weaving reed consists of flat steel bars, and the distance between these determines the “warp line” of the material. One pile warp thread, two binding warp threads and one ground warp thread run through each gap between two reed bars.
The weaving cycle
In weaving, the shafts are raised and lowered to form the pile and binding sheds. A steel pile wire is automatically inserted in the pile shed. The height and thickness of this pile wire determines both the height of the pile and the size of the nap. The reed pushes the pile wire lying on the base and binding threads forward. The pile threads are lowered onto the steel wire, enmeshing it in the weave. Additionally, the shuttle transports the weft threads into the binder shed. Once a set of pile wires (around 20) is firmly woven in the fabric, the first pile wire is withdrawn and inserted in the next pile shed via a transfer mechanism. In the manufacture of velour weaves, replaceable blades are mounted on the heads of the pile wires. When the pile wires are withdrawn from the weave, the loops are cut, creating the distinctive velour look and feel.
... Next: The Jacquard weaving process
Carpets For Contract
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Doubled yarns of various types and qualities are made by combining two or more yarns of equal or differing thicknesses and then twisting those using doubling machines. The twist of the yarns (Z = right-handed, S = left-handed) is usually opposed to the rotational direction of the yarn spindles. Doubling increases the strength and uniformity of the yarn.
In order to maintain certain yarn structures, single and multiple yarns are twisted normally or over-twisted. The over-twisting of the yarns gives rise to a crimp effect, which causes a displacement of the nap of the carpet pile (twist, frisé). To ensure that this effect remains permanent, the yarn must be fixed in this over twisted state. To this end, the yarn is treated with heat and steam in a so-called heat-set process.
Dyeing is the term for the technical process of colouring textiles. Originally, textile makers were limited to natural dyes derived from vegetable, animal or mineral materials. Indigo and madder red (alizarin) are two of the most familiar examples of vegetable dyes.
Purple dye, which was extracted from a type of snail, is an example of an animal dye. The extraction of this dyestuff was highly difficult and extremely expensive – around 12,000 snails had to be processed to make just one gram of the dye! Another natural dye was cochineal red, which was gained from the female of a species of coccid. Examples of mineral dyes include chrome yellow, cinnabar, Vienna green and ultramarine. Around the mid-19th century, the first artificial dyes were manufactured. These are complex, intricately structured hydrocarbon compounds.
Today, it is possible to dye textiles virtually any colour. Consequently, not only is the attractiveness of a dye important, but also its resistance to light, water and mechanical abrasion. Resistance to acids and bases may also be important criteria in some special applications.
The hot dye bath (an aqueous solution or slurry of dyes) is brought into intense contact with the material to be dyed (pumped, saturated). In the process, the dye is absorbed into the material. It is possible to dye fibres, yarns and entire carpets. These require different dyeing processes and machines:
Production-dyed fibres and yarns
These fibres and yarns are dyed right in the spinning process – the dye is added directly to the spinning material (spinneret dyeing). The result is fully dyed filaments, which can also be produced in mottled or thrown patterns.
Dyeing fibres and yarns
The material is dyed using what are known as circulation systems, in which the fibres or yarn to be dyed are placed. The material rests motionless while the dye bath is evenly pumped through it. Fibres are always dyed in a package system (flock dyeing), while yarns can be dyed using both package and suspension systems (hank dyeing). Modern industrial circulation systems can dye up to 2,000 kg of yarn in one colour batch. When dyeing fibres, the amount of material that can be dyed a particular colour at one time is virtually unlimited, as dyed segments with slight differences in colour are mixed before spinning to ensure a uniform colour.
Unlike production-dyed yarns, this process uses multiple dyes for each yarn. The sections of each colour can be long (“long-spaced”), or very short-spaced when a dot effect is desired. Whereas in space dyeing the dye is printed on, space treating uses chemical resist substances; these cause a varied colour uptake in subsequent piece dyeing.
Fibres and yarns must already be dyed before they are made into carpets. It is not possible to respond to customers’ colour preferences on an ad-hoc basis. The solution to this problem lies in piece dyeing. Unlike the circulation process described for dyeing fibres and yarns, in piece dyeing the carpet itself is moved through the dye bath.
In the discontinuous process (vat dyeing), up to 200 running meters of carpeting 400 to 500 cm wide are run through the dye bath as an endless belt. In this process, the carpeting is manufactured from undyed (raw white) yarn and then dyed the desired colour. This piece dyeing process acquired enhanced importance with the development of tufting technology and the introduction of differential-dyed yarns.
Differential dyeing is the process of dying polyamide yarn types that have the same technological properties but different chemical structures in a non-uniform manner. This means that the yarns with the various different dyeing properties must be utilized in the production of the raw white carpeting in accordance with the desired pattern. The result is that up to three different hues can be produced in a single dye bath. Multicolour effects can be achieved using yarns treated with a dye-resist process. Piece dyeing can be performed using either a vat or a continuous dye process, in which a virtually unlimited amount of carpeting can be dyed a specific colour.
Printing (Chromo-Jet process)
As in piece dyeing, the raw-white carpeting is fed into the printing system in its fabrication width.
The material is transported to the printing table via a material buffer, a steamer and brushes. The material is then halted here, and the printing head moves transversely to the direction of travel (tuft direction) from position 1 to position 2. The printing table advances the material 1.6666 mm (1 cm/8 corresponds to a dot spacing of 1.666 mm) and the head returns from position 2 to position 1. Once the printing head has reached position 1, the material is advanced and the printing head starts again.
The printing head has 64 nozzles per colour, arranged in an 8 x 8 matrix. The printing head is equipped with a total of 768 nozzles, which means that up to 12 colours per design are possible. As the actual nozzle body has a diameter off around 2 cm, the 64 nozzles per colour are arranged diagonally. These nozzles are controlled magnetically, and can execute up to 400 open/close cycles per second. With the Chromo-Jet process, it is possible to apply spray printing designs to materials with pile weights from approx. 550 to 2000 g/m2.
To be continued...The Weaving Process.
Carpets for Contract
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
History of Carpet Yarn Materials. Lets talk a bit about the different manufacturing processes, materials, etc. Understanding carpets technically is always better, especially in contracts.
Over the past 50 years, the importance of various raw textiles for the home textiles industry has changed greatly. Up until the middle of the 20th century, the demand for textiles was met primarily using natural fibres. Today, natural products make up only about 12 % of fibres consumption for carpeting, while chemical fibres account for around 88 %. The various raw materials fall into the following categories:
Wool is the oldest and best known fibre for making rugs and carpets. The varieties and qualities are as varied as the names and breeds of their supplier, the sheep. The approximately 450 different breeds produce a wide variety of wool types, which are differentiated by country of origin. Only sturdy and robust wools are suitable for making carpets, and carpeting manufacturers select these very carefully. The high elasticity of wool provides for fast recovery, so that the appearance is uniform at all times. Thanks to its ability to absorb moisture without feeling damp to the touch, it helps to maintain a comfortable humidity in indoor environments.
The common belief that chemical fibres are a modern invention is not entirely accurate. As early as the 17th and 18th centuries, the English natural philosopher Robert Hooke and the French physicist Réamur published their ideas for producing “artificial silk”. However, it was not until the end of the 19th century that the Frenchman Count Chardonnet actually achieved this. At the Paris Exposition in 1884, he presented a fabric made of artificial fibres.
The first chemical copper rayon was spun in Germany in the last decade of the 19th century. Artificial acetate silks came to market shortly after the First World War. The history of synthetic fibre materials began on July 4th 1913. On this day, the German chemist F. Klatte, employed by “Chemische Fabrik Griesheim Elektron” applied for a patent for a method of producing fibres on the basis of the polymerization reaction of vinyl compounds. Initially, this invention had just as little practical application as the invention of the German Nobel laureate H. Staudinger, who created the first synthetic fibre in 1927, out of polyoxymethylene.
On July 3rd, 1931, the American chemical company Du Pont & de Nemours & Co applied for a patent for the production of polyamide fibres. A team of scientists, led by Dr. Wallace H. Carothers, succeeded in synthesizing what we today know as nylon, made out of hexamethyline diamine and adipinic acid in a form suitable for spinning. Du Pont brought this product to market in 1938 under the trade name Nylon 6.6.
In 1938, the German chemist Paul Schlack developed a further method for producing polyamide (patent application dated November 11 1938), using norleucine as his starting material. By heating lactam with hydrochloric acid, Schlack succeeded in obtaining a linear polyamide. The process did not violate the intellectual property rights of Du Pont and resulted in the production of Nylon 6, which was marketed under the trade name Perlon.
The numbers 6 and 6.6 indicate the number of carbon atoms in the respective polyamide components. “Poly” means many, and refers to the combination of small molecules to form bigger ones. To make polyamide yarn, the polymer is melted at approx. 250 °C and pressed into spinning nozzles. The thin, solidified strand pressed out of the nozzle is then stretched to many times its length, which creates a strong, extremely thin filament. Thicker yarn, that is required for making carpeting, consists of bundles of filaments. In texturing, the yarn is changed in a physical or chemical process from a smooth filament yarn to form Bulked Continuous Filaments (BCF), gaining the volume necessary for the manufacture of the carpeting. In addition to filament yarn, there are also spun fibre yarns. In this process, the spun threads are joined to form a cable, which is then stretched, crimped and cut to the desired length.
In the next step, these fibres are spun to make yarn. The main difference between spun fibre and filament yarns is that filament yarn consists of infinite filament bundles and spun-fibre yarn of short twisted and spun fibres (“stapled fibres”). By itself, the chosen fibre material is not always the optimum solution. By blending, it is possible to combine the advantages of one fibre with those of another. One of the most widely known blends is 80% wool with 20 % polyamide. Today, in addition to polyamide, manufacturers can also use the synthetics polyacrylic, polyester and polypropylene.
However, polyamide is by far the most important raw material for carpeting in all Western European countries.
Spinning is humankind’s oldest craft. Sculpture has been found in Asia Minor showing a woman spinning that dates back to the first millennium. Originally, a small band of fibres was drawn out of fibre material, wool and leaf fibres between the thumb and forefinger, and twisted and wound into thread by the turning of a spindle.
The first spinning wheel was built in 1530. The first carding machine for separating fibres was built by John Wyatt in 1736. In 1795, James Heargreaves designed the first spinning machine. In a spinning factory, the randomly ordered spinning fibres are first aligned in parallel and then processed into bands of fibres by means of a series of mechanical processes. The agglomerated fibres are opened in a series of matched opposing rollers and then passed downstream (carding engine).
The fibre bands are then cleaned of any impurities, drawn and at the same time, evened. The refined fibre band is transformed into spun fibre yarn through twisting (spinning machine), i.e. the parallel band of fibres is reinforced. This process gives rise to adhesion between the fibres, making the spun material more stable. By means of this process, the spinning fibres – mostly short and medium-length fibres – are spun into a relatively coarse, voluminous, fibrous yarn with a unique yarn character.
NEXT: Doubling, Fixing, Dyeing...
Talking Carpet Specification on Contracts it happens to be that still End-User as well Architects are not really aware about the differences, as well some thinking that Nylon 6.6 is the next release number of 6. There are quite a few reasons about the misconceptions about these two yarn types. Here are a few facts that helps to understand. Recyclability
In terms of the sustainability trend and the involvement of post consumer and post industrial recycled content Nylon 6 is gaining market shares because of its 100% recyclable capacities.
To bring more light into the field of carpet specifications, here is a small guide that explains a few basics, that are often misunderstood or even not even advised that may lead afterward during use to maintenance problems or low performance.
Many construction systems can perform well as long they meet a certain Standard System and All Factors must be weighted. However, here are two main factors:
How Should Construction Specifications Be Used?
As a means of achieving desired performance and Aesthetic Objectives.
Construction vs. Performance: Which Wins?
Neither. They are Totally Interrelated
How Does Construction Affect Performance?
Construction Largely determines performance Construction consists of many facets: Each play a role
Which Construction Components are Most Important?
They are all Important. Each Component acts as a piece of the puzzle. All pieces of the puzzle must mesh to complete the picture:
How “Tight” should a Specification?
Specific enough to achieve the desired performance requirements, but general enough to allow for the manufacturers to use the most effective technology to meet the needs of the project. Some items can be a little more general
Some items can be very specific
Key is to allow for the best choice from the manufacturer’s technology to achieve the Client’s needs.
“Or Equal” Defined Construction OR Performance.
One of the most misunderstood and confusingly used term in Specifications “Equal” is defined by the specifier.
PERFORMANCE rules, and should be “equal” with any competitive product. Aesthetics should be closely duplicated in an “equal” Construction parameters should be secondary to achieve Performance and Aesthetic specifications. “Or Equal” Stands the Legal Test. Federal Courts have ruled that Proprietary Specifications are not a violation of Antitrust Laws… Specifiers make informed judgments on products which they feel best serves their clients needs. “Or Equals” actually enhance competition and opens up projects to a wider array of choices among similar products.
Apples to Apples Comparison
All components of specifications should be the same if they are truly to be equals
Traps to Avoid
The most common trap on many specifications is the reliance on one single factor of a construction specification by which the entire acceptance of a product is justified.
Budget = Cost, installation, maintenance, life cycle
Many times we see areas looking dirty and End-User gets the idea that the carpets are difficult to clean, which is too often not the case. It all starts with the maintenance and it begins with the right vacuum cleaner. An unfortunate fact is that too often we see that the wrong vacuum cleaner is being used. Without brush or just a cheap model, not professional with the right power to maintain commercial/public areas with daily traffic. Result, the dirt remains in the carpet and goes deeper and deeper into it. Solution: Get a proper vacuum cleaner from the beginning and have a good looking carpet, even in heavy duty areas.
The CE marking certifies that a product has met safety, environmental protection, health and consumers protection required by Construction Products Directive (CPD 89/106/EEC) and related standards (European harmonised standard EN 14041), moreover, it could avoid technical barriers reasonably to trade freely in European market and open other international market.
From 1 January 2007 on, all the carpet covering which would into European market should meet related directive and standard, tested, certified and affix CE mark.
CE marking to carpet / CE marking to textile - EN 14041- Requirement